장흥콜걸┗24시출장샵☀장흥무한샷 안마방〈장흥정왕동 안마방〉↶{장흥행신 안마방}①장흥보령 마사지☏장흥마사지 핸플‿장흥피로회복을 위한 건강 마사지╪장흥경산 마사지◢장흥안마방 태국녀

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

xlsx.xyz
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

장흥콜걸♀24시출장샵═장흥무한샷 안마방〈장흥천안 카페〉↕{장흥부산 모텔 출장}♥장흥세종시 마사지ノ장흥경산 사우나 마사지☰장흥장애인 안마방⇚장흥성남 안마방●장흥안마방 스킬

The governments of more than 190 nations 제주강서구청 안마방 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

장흥콜걸↪24시출장샵☞장흥무한샷 안마방〈장흥시엠립 밤문화 마사지〉⇢{장흥안마방 똥까시}═장흥수원 태국 마사지☇장흥안마방 잠☀장흥출장♜장흥정준호 안마방┯장흥복부 마사지

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

장흥콜걸✓예약금없는출장샵↶장흥무한샷 안마방〈장흥혼자 안마방〉┙{장흥일베 모텔}✒장흥목포 모텔 추천♖장흥영종도 안마방■장흥안마방 코스┠장흥안마방 애널┓장흥일산 안마방 가격

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 카지노사이트 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

장흥콜걸☜예약금없는출장샵✄장흥무한샷 안마방〈장흥이태원 안마방〉↟{장흥안성 안마방}═장흥안마방 추천▧장흥엄마와 딸 마사지➳장흥육덕 마사지◦장흥조치원 마사지◎장흥기흥구청 마사지

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 수원마사지 단속 시간 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

장흥콜걸エ예약☢장흥무한샷 안마방〈장흥출장서비스〉⇆{장흥여성전용 마사지}☣장흥안마방 지루╔장흥인천 안마방♨장흥천안 안마☟장흥안마방 가성비❀장흥헬로 마사지

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 온라인카지노 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

장흥콜걸장흥수원 출장

  • 용인까치산 마사지
  • 장흥부산 서면 안마방
  • 장흥콜걸
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    장흥콜걸☏출장부르는법♗장흥무한샷 안마방〈장흥손목 마사지〉✖{장흥자지 마사지}➠장흥문정동 마사지⊙장흥gigi rivera 마사지♭장흥죽전 안마방↔장흥구래동 마사지コ장흥창원 안마방

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 경주피로회복 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 창원출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    온라인카지노
    청도마사지 tumblr 카지노사이트 순창출장 마사지 썰
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 수원출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    장흥콜걸♩24시출장샵┱장흥무한샷 안마방〈장흥노포 안마방〉➴{장흥귀 마사지}▧장흥동탄 마사지 후기╠ 장흥얼굴 마사지➸장흥커플 마사지 방법╜장흥일반인 마사지 torrent▫장흥노원 안마방

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 칠곡안마방 도찰 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    장흥콜걸♧예약금없는출장샵μ장흥무한샷 안마방〈장흥둔산동 엘 마사지〉☁{장흥신림 안마방}┎장흥오피스 방╂장흥신림 안마방╧장흥안마방 정보的장흥두통 마사지ソ장흥페니스 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 포항출장샵 .

    예천홍대 안마방 위치
    무안안마방 마사지 광주출장안마 목포코 마사지 전후
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    장흥콜걸║24시출장샵‿장흥무한샷 안마방〈장흥탑 클래스〉✲{장흥태국마사지 후기}﹌장흥용산역 마사지╫장흥저주파 마사지⇣장흥상해 마사지ღ장흥면목동 안마방↪장흥은평구 안마방

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 카지노사이트 .

    장흥콜걸㊣예약♟장흥무한샷 안마방〈장흥유방 마사지〉╳{장흥오일 전신 마사지}▄장흥대구 모텔 가격⇛장흥강원 랜드 근처 마사지┵장흥손목터널증후군 마사지×장흥안마방 내상☺장흥조건 카페

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 온라인카지노 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 진도상암동 안마방 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    장흥콜걸➶출장부르는법✖장흥무한샷 안마방〈장흥군산 여관〉§{장흥나무위키 안마방}◕장흥배 마사지┙장흥안마방 초이스 torrent✍장흥태국여행 마사지▥장흥전북 안마방✿장흥안마방 입에 사정

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    장흥콜걸╩예약▶장흥무한샷 안마방〈장흥대전 출장〉┽{장흥마사지 추천}☆장흥하노이 vip 마사지✘장흥일반인 마사지 torrent╍장흥선릉역 안마방➨장흥동탄 안마방✙장흥안마방 사귄

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 경산종아리 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The jub.xyz , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 구미출장안마 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 서울 호텔식 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 온라인카지노 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    장흥콜걸☭출장부르는법☲장흥무한샷 안마방〈장흥대전 모텔 다방〉♪{장흥맛사지}●장흥폰섹 녹음┙장흥영통 마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ┕장흥삼계 안마방▌장흥모텔 다방▀장흥영통 마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 카지노사이트 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: adko.xyz showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 카지노사이트 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    장흥콜걸➺출장부르는법⇣장흥무한샷 안마방〈장흥고양이 마사지〉⇆{장흥미금 안마방}↠장흥연예인 안마방▤장흥마카오 마사지╈장흥상남동 마사지♬장흥당진 마사지웃장흥남성전용마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    양양광주 안마방
    lovejg.xyz 울진낙성대 안마방 온라인카지노
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    장흥콜걸╉예약금없는출장샵◈장흥무한샷 안마방〈장흥텀블러 마사지〉⇙{장흥질 마사지}☛장흥정자 안마방❣장흥20대 안마방❀장흥정자역 안마방↫장흥흉쇄유돌근 마사지↺장흥태국마사지 불법

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.장흥콜걸장흥전국 안마방♡장흥울산 명촌 안마방☵{장흥감성마사지 뜻}장흥익산 안마방⇢장흥속초 마사지╤장흥스웨 디시 마사지 란◐장흥마사지 샵►webdesigners.xyz예약장흥링검 마사지∷장흥안마방 알바⇩(장흥성내동 안마방)장흥미금역 안마방웃장흥동래 마사지★장흥마사지 롤러☁장흥분당 마사지 추천│장흥콜걸청주레이크호텔 마사지장흥마사지 야설↕장흥마사지 움짤⇎【장흥인계동 안마방】장흥안마방 위치♟장흥안마방 유출┏장흥논현 마사지┥장흥해변 마사지╯장흥안마방 노출☪장흥안마방 질내사정☼〔장흥관자놀이 마사지〕장흥만남 방μ장흥콜걸샵▶장흥천안 마사지↼장흥진주 마사지┄장흥아로마 마사지 효능✍장흥의정부 마사지☯「장흥러시아 오피 후기」장흥마사지 av▤장흥모텔 아가씨☴장흥대딸 마사지↽장흥마사지 19ホ장흥하동 안마방╚장흥호치민 리버티 마사지╈﹝장흥서울 출장안마﹞장흥강남 왁싱샵▧장흥서울출장안마ν장흥일산 안마방←장흥출장 마사지✌예약연천중국 대딸24시출장샵장흥마사지 추천↿장흥에이미 안마방☻『장흥안마방 수입』장흥용산 안마방↱장흥섹스 마사지☆장흥마사지 추천☺장흥마사지 움짤♨장흥콜걸장흥콜걸lovejg.xyz장흥유성 마사지장흥마사지 롤러장흥창원 마사지장흥안마방 방구장흥콜걸장흥경주 동천동 안마방①장흥대구 타이 마사지☌{장흥마사지 레전드}장흥어깨통증 마사지μ장흥장유 안마방┙장흥마사지 앱.장흥허리 마사지╮부평출장마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

    Topics