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  • 거제출장맛사지☜예약▼거제장안동 안마방〖거제진주 안마방〗←〔거제안마방 정보〕▶거제단양 안마방➹거제동탄 안마방➛거제서양 마사지 야동◑거제남성 왁싱❈거제한국 마사지 야동

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

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    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    거제출장맛사지☭예약▬거제장안동 안마방〖거제산본 마사지 후기〗┹〔거제안마방 단속〕⚘거제냉정 안마방♚거제범계역 안마방⇥거제출장샵예약W거제제주시 연동 마사지⇛거제거제 안마방 추천

    The governments of more than 190 nations 창녕호치민 리버티 마사지 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    거제출장맛사지╔예약╂거제장안동 안마방〖거제19 마사지〗♣〔거제나주 마사지〕﹌거제세종시 안마방╓거제마사지 야동▪거제포항 양덕 마사지☰거제안산 마사지 추천◈거제안마방 비비기

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    거제출장맛사지◘예약금없는출장샵┏거제장안동 안마방〖거제송우리 안마방〗☀〔거제신림역 안마방〕♞거제마사지┨거제모텔출장↕거제종아리 근육 마사지◑거제검단사거리 안마방☼거제부산 타이 마사지

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 카지노사이트 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    거제출장맛사지☷예약금없는출장샵☍거제장안동 안마방〖거제검단 안마방〗◆〔거제부평 마사지〕✔거제마사지 볼♨거제서현역 안마방β거제출장샵안내♨거제성인마사지웃거제해운대 아가씨

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 대전세종 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    거제출장맛사지┊예약☺거제장안동 안마방〖거제오송 마사지〗§〔거제다낭 호텔 마사지〕◄거제사각근 마사지→거제이동국 안마방☯거제세종시 마사지┠거제여의도 마사지♥거제안마방 움짤

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 원주출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    거제출장맛사지거제두통 마사지

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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    거제출장맛사지ⓛ출장부르는법△거제장안동 안마방〖거제안마방 커뮤니티〗»〔거제광명 안마방〕♪ 거제하동 안마방◀거제안마방 똥꼬☃거제안마방 비아그라◐거제마사지 크림┇거제천안 유흥

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 포천역출장안마 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 천안출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    온라인카지노
    김포마사지 공떡 구미출장안마 이천대구 출장마사지
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 카지노사이트 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    거제출장맛사지⇘예약금없는출장샵¤거제장안동 안마방〖거제안마방 알바 단속〗╅〔거제마사지 관리사〕❂거제서귀포 안마방◊거제이천 안마방★거제안마방 누드ⓛ거제전립선 마사지 방법ロ거제오산 타이 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 부천하단 안마방 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    거제출장맛사지♨24시출장샵▦거제장안동 안마방〖거제혼자 안마방〗0〔거제안양 안마방 후기〕ケ거제유선 마사지⇚거제안마방 팁╢거제마사지 텀블러◎거제생리통 마사지⊙거제상대보호구역

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the airportservice.xyz .

    수원안마방 입문
    영덕송강동 마사지 부산출장안마 춘천마곡 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    거제출장맛사지┨예약금없는출장샵➧거제장안동 안마방〖거제황제 마사지〗♔〔거제김천 안마방〕✒거제창원 출장 숙소㍿거제국노 토렌트┓거제전주 안마방ο거제sod 마사지⇩거제공주 안마방

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 포항출장안마 .

    거제출장맛사지♭예약↽거제장안동 안마방〖거제비 안마방〗╡〔거제경동맥 마사지〕▒거제안마방 스타킹╘거제방콕 마사지 추천✉거제서양 마사지☊거제타이 마사지 팁♭거제부산 서면 출장

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 전주출장샵 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 창원세부 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    거제출장맛사지┏출장부르는법☆거제장안동 안마방〖거제안마방 몇시〗◇〔거제군대 안마방〕╖거제속초 마사지↴거제타이 마사지 토렌트➸거제안마방 러시아☇거제동네 안마방↝거제정지훈 안마방

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    거제출장맛사지τ예약┳거제장안동 안마방〖거제여친 마사지〗┱〔거제마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ 뜻〕☆거제서울 조건 만남➚거제유방 마사지✍거제안마방 위키■거제구미 여관⇗거제조건 만남 서울

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 용인안마방 벌금 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 85me.xyz , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 카지노사이트 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 진해jav 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 포항출장샵 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    거제출장맛사지┛출장부르는법↔거제장안동 안마방〖거제마사지 방법〗£〔거제마사지 남친〕┌거제사천 안마방☭거제남성 전용 마사지╝거제두통 마사지κ거제복부 마사지↕거제신주쿠 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 포항출장샵 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 카지노사이트 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 서울출장안마 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    거제출장맛사지↝예약╃거제장안동 안마방〖거제안마방 단속시간〗♪〔거제카메라 마사지〕╏거제에이미 안마방╡거제안마방 알바•거제신림역 안마방➢거제대학로 마사지ヌ거제부산 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    진주종아리 마사지
    진주출장안마 안동마사지 강좌 평택출장샵
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    거제출장맛사지☇출장부르는법↹거제장안동 안마방〖거제출장 만남 대행〗◐〔거제서양 안마방〕ⓞ거제단발 안마방╖거제신사역 안마방➦거제송강동 마사지┱거제발산역 안마방♨거제마사지 의자

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.거제출장맛사지거제장유 안마방テ거제구미 여관┒〔거제안마방 서울〕거제문산 마사지◘거제논현 안마방➛거제군대 안마방☑거제인도 뉴델리 마사지✐카지노사이트예약금없는출장샵거제아가씨 썰↙거제석계 안마방↢[거제대전 황궁 마사지]거제거제 마사지┱거제군대 안마방♧거제유흥 마사지✿거제마사지 사이트♨거제출장맛사지영주av 마사지 추천거제다방 티켓 썰↗거제야몽 마사지┘〖거제당진 안마방〗거제일산 모텔 추천┛거제당진 마사지★거제호치민 마사지 추천╌거제대구 안마방☠거제세부 안마방▥거제사각턱 마사지➦[거제중국 우한 마사지]거제안마방 아줌마↷거제전립선 마사지 방법┿거제동암역 마사지ハ거제부산 연산동 출장⇍거제안마방 후장ハ거제양산 안마방⇇『거제대전 마사지 후기』거제안마방 경험➴거제안마방 분수サ거제대딸 마사지╳거제아가씨 썰⊿거제지저분한 섹스 나고야 여성 마사지♕거제검단사거리 안마방╝〈거제창동 마사지〉거제전주 마사지☻거제국산_신작_안마방✪거제안마방 서울♂거제영대 안마방┤예약금없는출장샵봉화군산 안마방24시출장샵거제안마방 동창⊙거제마사지 3만원モ(거제가슴 커지는 마사지)거제언양 마사지♩거제포항 마사지 후기❀거제천안 출장◎거제춘천 마사지ε거제출장맛사지거제출장맛사지카지노사이트거제안동 마사지거제안마방 나이거제유흥 마사지거제영천 마사지거제출장맛사지거제푸켓 크리스틴 마사지ψ거제고양 마사지☀[거제타이마사지 섹스]거제가경동 안마방⇈거제부산마사지₪거제양재역 마사지⇖거제우에하라 아이 마사지┟정읍대전 여관

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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